September 06, 2023

_LEARN

/

REFERENCE LAB

A Journey Through the Skin: How UV Radiation Causes Damage at Every Level

_LEARN

/

REFERENCE LAB

September 06, 2023

A Journey Through the Skin: How UV Radiation Causes Damage at Every Level
Sunburn. Early wrinkles. Dark spots. Most of us are familiar with the visible side effects of unprotected sun exposure. But did you know that the effects of UV actually permeate far beyond the skin’s surface? In fact, UV radiation can fundamentally alter the very molecules that keep our skin healthy and functional. Ready to learn more? Join us on a journey into the skin where we’ll examine the effects of UV exposure on both the macro and micro levels–and introduce you to the science that proves that OS-01 can help mitigate UV-induced aging.
Sunburn. Early wrinkles. Dark spots. Most of us are familiar with the visible side effects of unprotected sun exposure. But did you know that the effects of UV actually permeate far beyond the skin’s surface? In fact, UV radiation can fundamentally alter the very molecules that keep our skin healthy and functional. Ready to learn more? Join us on a journey into the skin where we’ll examine the effects of UV exposure on both the macro and micro levels–and introduce you to the science that proves that OS-01 can help mitigate UV-induced aging.

Part 1: The Structural Level

Our journey begins at the macro level with the fundamental structure of the human skin. We’ll start at the skin surface–the moisture barrier–and travel through the dermis, the middle skin layer that gives skin its essential structure.

Part 1: The Structural Level

Our journey begins at the macro level with the fundamental structure of the human skin. We’ll start at the skin surface–the moisture barrier–and travel through the dermis, the middle skin layer that gives skin its essential structure.

How does sun exposure impact the skin barrier?

Did you know that your skin contains a natural shield that protects it from environmental aggressors? It’s called the skin barrier, moisture barrier, or stratum corneum, a layer of dead skin cells held together by lipids and oils that keeps the skin hydrated and protected from external pathogens, pollutants and more.
UV exposure damages this protective skin layer in a number of ways. By oxidizing and disrupting the lipids that form tight junctions between dead skin cells, UV radiation weakens the barrier’s seal against the outside world. Plus, UV has been shown to significantly compromise the mechanical properties of the moisture barrier, making the skin more likely to crack. This makes the skin vulnerable to environmental aggressors–resulting in redness, irritation, and dryness. Over time, this vulnerability makes the skin even more sensitive to UV, creating a pernicious cycle of structural damage.1

How does sun exposure impact the skin barrier?

Did you know that your skin contains a natural shield that protects it from environmental aggressors? It’s called the skin barrier, moisture barrier, or stratum corneum, a layer of dead skin cells held together by lipids and oils that keeps the skin hydrated and protected from external pathogens, pollutants and more.
UV exposure damages this protective skin layer in a number of ways. By oxidizing and disrupting the lipids that form tight junctions between dead skin cells, UV radiation weakens the barrier’s seal against the outside world. Plus, UV has been shown to significantly compromise the mechanical properties of the moisture barrier, making the skin more likely to crack. This makes the skin vulnerable to environmental aggressors–resulting in redness, irritation, and dryness. Over time, this vulnerability makes the skin even more sensitive to UV, creating a pernicious cycle of structural damage.1

How does sun exposure structurally impact other layers of the skin?

Around the cells within skin lies the extracellular matrix, a network of proteins, growth factors, and other molecules that support skin structure and maintain skin repair.2 In the dermis layer of the skin, the extracellular matrix makes it possible for the skin to flex with movement and bounce back from physical stress.
Chronic UV exposure significantly degrades the extracellular matrix, making the skin less efficient at creating new proteins. In fact, UV exposure increases the skin’s production of matrix metalloproteinases, enzymes that break down both collagen and elastin–two of the skin’s essential structural proteins. UV radiation has also been shown to degrade the skin’s supply of hyaluronic acid, an essential molecule that regulates hydration.3 The result: skin sagging, fine lines, and dehydration.

How does sun exposure structurally impact other layers of the skin?

Around the cells within skin lies the extracellular matrix, a network of proteins, growth factors, and other molecules that support skin structure and maintain skin repair.2 In the dermis layer of the skin, the extracellular matrix makes it possible for the skin to flex with movement and bounce back from physical stress.
Chronic UV exposure significantly degrades the extracellular matrix, making the skin less efficient at creating new proteins. In fact, UV exposure increases the skin’s production of matrix metalloproteinases, enzymes that break down both collagen and elastin–two of the skin’s essential structural proteins. UV radiation has also been shown to degrade the skin’s supply of hyaluronic acid, an essential molecule that regulates hydration.3 The result: skin sagging, fine lines, and dehydration.

How does OS-01 reverse UV-induced aging at the structural level?

In studies on human skin samples, OS-01 was scientifically proven to promote epidermal thickness, a marker of skin strength and increased barrier function.4 This means that it can help bolster your skin’s barrier defenses against the impacts of UV radiation.
It can also help mitigate the signs of UV aging in the skin’s deeper layers. In lab studies on ex vivo
human skin samples, our peptide was scientifically proven to reduce the activity of MMPs while improving a key marker associated with collagen production (COL1A1), showing that OS-01 not only prevents UV-induced collagen degradation but also helps reverse collagen loss that may have already occurred. Plus, OS-01 has been shown to improve a marker associated with hyaluronic acid production (HAS2), helping to counteract the loss of hydration that occurs with chronic sun exposure.4

How does OS-01 reverse UV-induced aging at the structural level?

In studies on human skin samples, OS-01 was scientifically proven to promote epidermal thickness, a marker of skin strength and increased barrier function.4 This means that it can help bolster your skin’s barrier defenses against the impacts of UV radiation.
It can also help mitigate the signs of UV aging in the skin’s deeper layers. In lab studies on ex vivo
human skin samples, our peptide was scientifically proven to reduce the activity of MMPs while improving a key marker associated with collagen production (COL1A1), showing that OS-01 not only prevents UV-induced collagen degradation but also helps reverse collagen loss that may have already occurred. Plus, OS-01 has been shown to improve a marker associated with hyaluronic acid production (HAS2), helping to counteract the loss of hydration that occurs with chronic sun exposure.4

Part 2: The Cellular Level

The impacts of UV radiation go far beyond the skin structure. In fact, UV radiation has been shown to fundamentally change the way our skin functions on the cellular level. One of the reasons that you might see more dark spots after sun exposure is because UV radiation impacts melanocytes, the skin cells responsible for producing skin pigment. As these cells are damaged by UV, they begin pumping out more and more melanin, leading to abnormal and uneven deposits of skin pigment.5
The cellular impacts of UV radiation don’t end there. Chronic sun exposure has also been shown to accelerate cellular senescence
, the accumulation of aged zombie cells that induce aging in neighboring cells.6 As a central hallmark of aging, cellular senescence accelerates skin aging in numerous ways, including by increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.7

Part 2: The Cellular Level

The impacts of UV radiation go far beyond the skin structure. In fact, UV radiation has been shown to fundamentally change the way our skin functions on the cellular level. One of the reasons that you might see more dark spots after sun exposure is because UV radiation impacts melanocytes, the skin cells responsible for producing skin pigment. As these cells are damaged by UV, they begin pumping out more and more melanin, leading to abnormal and uneven deposits of skin pigment.5
The cellular impacts of UV radiation don’t end there. Chronic sun exposure has also been shown to accelerate cellular senescence
, the accumulation of aged zombie cells that induce aging in neighboring cells.6 As a central hallmark of aging, cellular senescence accelerates skin aging in numerous ways, including by increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.7

How does OS-01 reverse UV aging at the cellular level?

For a topical product to really make a difference, it must work beyond the skin surface. With this standard in mind, we tested OS-01 in the lab to ensure that it made a positive difference at the cellular level. In our tests, OS-01 was shown to reduce melanin deposition in and around melanocytes in vitro, preventing UV-induced hyperpigmentation at the cellular level. Additionally, the OS-01 peptide is scientifically proven to reduce cellular senescence in human skin cells in vitro
4 – preventing the root cause of skin aging that triggers increased inflammation and accelerated aging. These impacts were further validated in tests that showed that OS-01 reduces biomarkers associated with UV-induced inflammation (IL-6 and CCL2) and another associated with aging and senescence (CDK2NA).4

How does OS-01 reverse UV aging at the cellular level?

For a topical product to really make a difference, it must work beyond the skin surface. With this standard in mind, we tested OS-01 in the lab to ensure that it made a positive difference at the cellular level. In our tests, OS-01 was shown to reduce melanin deposition in and around melanocytes in vitro, preventing UV-induced hyperpigmentation at the cellular level. Additionally, the OS-01 peptide is scientifically proven to reduce cellular senescence in human skin cells in vitro
4 – preventing the root cause of skin aging that triggers increased inflammation and accelerated aging. These impacts were further validated in tests that showed that OS-01 reduces biomarkers associated with UV-induced inflammation (IL-6 and CCL2) and another associated with aging and senescence (CDK2NA).4

Part 3: Molecular Level

Within every human skin cell lies DNA, a molecule that contains all the genetic instructions our cells need to replicate. Sun exposure’s inextricable links to skin conditions start at this molecular level.
DNA’s genetic instructions are encoded on molecules called nucleotides, which lie on two separate strands that are bonded together to create the iconic double helix that most of us know as DNA. UVB radiation directly damages nucleotide bonds, altering the way our DNA strands come together. UVA radiation indirectly damages DNA by generating oxidizing free radicals that trigger mutations. When our skin DNA becomes damaged in these ways, our cells may no longer replicate correctly, leading to both accelerated aging and skin conditions.8

Part 3: Molecular Level

Within every human skin cell lies DNA, a molecule that contains all the genetic instructions our cells need to replicate. Sun exposure’s inextricable links to skin conditions start at this molecular level.
DNA’s genetic instructions are encoded on molecules called nucleotides, which lie on two separate strands that are bonded together to create the iconic double helix that most of us know as DNA. UVB radiation directly damages nucleotide bonds, altering the way our DNA strands come together. UVA radiation indirectly damages DNA by generating oxidizing free radicals that trigger mutations. When our skin DNA becomes damaged in these ways, our cells may no longer replicate correctly, leading to both accelerated aging and skin conditions.8

How does OS-01 reverse UV aging at the molecular level?

For decades, SPF has been celebrated as our best defense against sun damage. That’s because there is overwhelming evidence that SPF shields against UV-induced DNA damage.For over a year, our team has been working on our very first sunscreen infused with the OS-01 peptide. In lab studies on human skin cells in vitro
, the OS-01 peptide was proven to reduce a key biomarker associated with DNA damage.4 This shows that OS-01 may help bolster skin’s repair capabilities.
Coming soon, our SPF formula has been shown to neutralize free radicals better than other sunscreens on the market. This means that, in addition to boasting OS-01’s restorative benefits, our formula may help protect against the oxidation that causes problematic DNA mutations. Keep your eyes peeled for more exciting developments on this groundbreaking formula.

How does OS-01 reverse UV aging at the molecular level?

For decades, SPF has been celebrated as our best defense against sun damage. That’s because there is overwhelming evidence that SPF shields against UV-induced DNA damage.For over a year, our team has been working on our very first sunscreen infused with the OS-01 peptide. In lab studies on human skin cells in vitro
, the OS-01 peptide was proven to reduce a key biomarker associated with DNA damage.4 This shows that OS-01 may help bolster skin’s repair capabilities.
Coming soon, our SPF formula has been shown to neutralize free radicals better than other sunscreens on the market. This means that, in addition to boasting OS-01’s restorative benefits, our formula may help protect against the oxidation that causes problematic DNA mutations. Keep your eyes peeled for more exciting developments on this groundbreaking formula.

OS-01 Reverses the Effects of UV-Induced Aging on All Levels

Unlike other anti-aging ingredients, our breakthrough peptide does more than just improve the visible side effects of UV-induced aging. By targeting cellular senescence, the OS-01 peptide is the only molecule proven to reverse the effects of UV-induced aging on all levels–from structural changes in the stratum corneum to damage at the molecular level. This is good news for those of us who have spent too much time in the sun. By addressing UV-induced aging that’s already occurred, OS-01 has the potential to undo some of the negative impacts we see as we age. For most people, this improved skin function looks like more hydrated skin, fewer fine lines and wrinkles, and faded hyperpigmentation. In other words: healthier skin.

OS-01 Reverses the Effects of UV-Induced Aging on All Levels

Unlike other anti-aging ingredients, our breakthrough peptide does more than just improve the visible side effects of UV-induced aging. By targeting cellular senescence, the OS-01 peptide is the only molecule proven to reverse the effects of UV-induced aging on all levels–from structural changes in the stratum corneum to damage at the molecular level. This is good news for those of us who have spent too much time in the sun. By addressing UV-induced aging that’s already occurred, OS-01 has the potential to undo some of the negative impacts we see as we age. For most people, this improved skin function looks like more hydrated skin, fewer fine lines and wrinkles, and faded hyperpigmentation. In other words: healthier skin.
Key Takeaways:
  • UV radiation has negative impacts on both the macro and micro levels–altering everything from skin structure to the very molecules that keep our skin functional.
  • At the structural level, sun exposure damages both the moisture barrier on the skin surface and the deeper layers of the skin where collagen and elastin are formed.
  • At the cellular level, UV causes accelerated cellular aging and cellular senescence, which increase hyperpigmentation and inflammation.
  • At the micro level, both UVA and UVB have been shown to cause DNA damage that accelerates aging and leads to skin cancer.
  • As shown in multiple lab tests, the OS-01 peptide is the only molecule proven to reverse the effects of UV-induced aging on all levels by targeting cellular senescence.
Key Takeaways:
  • UV radiation has negative impacts on both the macro and micro levels–altering everything from skin structure to the very molecules that keep our skin functional.
  • At the structural level, sun exposure damages both the moisture barrier on the skin surface and the deeper layers of the skin where collagen and elastin are formed.
  • At the cellular level, UV causes accelerated cellular aging and cellular senescence, which increase hyperpigmentation and inflammation.
  • At the micro level, both UVA and UVB have been shown to cause DNA damage that accelerates aging and leads to skin cancer.
  • As shown in multiple lab tests, the OS-01 peptide is the only molecule proven to reverse the effects of UV-induced aging on all levels by targeting cellular senescence.

Reviewed by Alessandra Zonari, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) and Co-Founder of OneSkin

Alessandra earned her Master’s degree in stem cell biology, and her PhD in skin regeneration and tissue engineering at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil in collaboration with the 3B’s Research Group in Portugal. Alessandra did a second post-doctoral at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. She is a co-inventor of three patents and has published 20 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals.

Reviewed by Alessandra Zonari, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) and Co-Founder of OneSkin

Alessandra earned her Master’s degree in stem cell biology, and her PhD in skin regeneration and tissue engineering at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil in collaboration with the 3B’s Research Group in Portugal. Alessandra did a second post-doctoral at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. She is a co-inventor of three patents and has published 20 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals.

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