Gut Health and Skin: How Are They Connected?

6 min read

MAR 10, 2023 - Annie moberg
HEALTH

Gut Health and Skin: How Are They Connected?

6 min read

MAR 10, 2023 - Annie moberg
HEALTH
For decades, scientists have known that skin health starts from within. But where, exactly? Recent breakthroughs in the study of the human microbiome suggest that the key to skin health may actually start deep within our digestive system with the millions of microorganisms living in our gut. When our gut microbiome is in balance, our skin thrives. But when that microbial balance is off, our skin can suffer from conditions like psoriasis, acne, dandruff, and atopic dermatitis. [1,2]
For decades, scientists have known that skin health starts from within. But where, exactly? Recent breakthroughs in the study of the human microbiome suggest that the key to skin health may actually start deep within our digestive system with the millions of microorganisms living in our gut. When our gut microbiome is in balance, our skin thrives. But when that microbial balance is off, our skin can suffer from conditions like psoriasis, acne, dandruff, and atopic dermatitis. [1,2]

So, what does this mean for you and your skin? It means that along with using high-quality topical skin care products, supporting a healthy gut is crucial to skin health. Let’s take a closer look at the emerging science and what you can do to support gut health with your everyday habits.

So, what does this mean for you and your skin? It means that along with using high-quality topical skin care products, supporting a healthy gut is crucial to skin health. Let’s take a closer look at the emerging science and what you can do to support gut health with your everyday habits.
01

What is the Microbiome?

Our digestive tract is home to trillions of microorganisms: some beneficial and some harmful. When our gut microbiome is at its best, beneficial microorganisms outnumber pathogenic ones. But many aspects of modern living–including antibiotics, antibacterial products, and heavily processed foods–can throw off our microbial balance, giving pathogenic bacteria an advantage that can lead to unwanted health consequences. To understand why this matters, let’s take a closer look at three of the microbiome’s basic health functions.
01

What is the Microbiome?

Our digestive tract is home to trillions of microorganisms: some beneficial and some harmful. When our gut microbiome is at its best, beneficial microorganisms outnumber pathogenic ones. But many aspects of modern living–including antibiotics, antibacterial products, and heavily processed foods–can throw off our microbial balance, giving pathogenic bacteria an advantage that can lead to unwanted health consequences. To understand why this matters, let’s take a closer look at three of the microbiome’s basic health functions.
02

Nutrient Absorption and Metabolism

The food we eat gives us the nutrients we need for growth, energy, and cellular function. But absorbing the nutrients in our food doesn't happen automatically: the microbiota in our gut do much of this for us, transforming dietary nutrients into bioavailable forms that our bodies can absorb effectively. [4] In fact, many life-critical nutrients like vitamin K and vitamin B–essential for wound healing, cardiovascular function, and muscle development–are mainly processed by microorganisms in the gut. [4]This nutrient metabolism is symbiotic, meaning it benefits both us and the microbes living within us. For example, beneficial microorganisms from the lactobacillus and roseburia genera need plenty of vitamin A and vitamin C to grow. When we eat foods high in these vitamins, lactobacillus and roseburia thrive; in return, they break down hard-to-digest lactose, reduce cholesterol, and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are critical to our brain function.
02

Nutrient Absorption and Metabolism

The food we eat gives us the nutrients we need for growth, energy, and cellular function. But absorbing the nutrients in our food doesn't happen automatically: the microbiota in our gut do much of this for us, transforming dietary nutrients into bioavailable forms that our bodies can absorb effectively. [4] In fact, many life-critical nutrients like vitamin K and vitamin B–essential for wound healing, cardiovascular function, and muscle development–are mainly processed by microorganisms in the gut. [4]This nutrient metabolism is symbiotic, meaning it benefits both us and the microbes living within us. For example, beneficial microorganisms from the lactobacillus and roseburia genera need plenty of vitamin A and vitamin C to grow. When we eat foods high in these vitamins, lactobacillus and roseburia thrive; in return, they break down hard-to-digest lactose, reduce cholesterol, and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are critical to our brain function.
03

Immune Response

A recent review of six articles from the scientific journal Immunology concluded that our immune systems are developed in large part by the microbial communities we’re exposed to at birth. While the exact connection is still unclear, scientists believe there’s a link between the microbiome and immune-modulated conditions like autoimmune diseases, asthma, and allergies later in life. [5,6] Scientists continue to research these connections for potential immune system treatments. For example, emerging research suggests that colonizing a person’s digestive tract with beneficial microorganisms via fecal transplant could serve as an effective therapy for immune disorders. [5,6]
03

Immune Response

A recent review of six articles from the scientific journal Immunology concluded that our immune systems are developed in large part by the microbial communities we’re exposed to at birth. While the exact connection is still unclear, scientists believe there’s a link between the microbiome and immune-modulated conditions like autoimmune diseases, asthma, and allergies later in life. [5,6] Scientists continue to research these connections for potential immune system treatments. For example, emerging research suggests that colonizing a person’s digestive tract with beneficial microorganisms via fecal transplant could serve as an effective therapy for immune disorders. [5,6]
04

Inflammation

Perhaps the most exciting area of microbiome research explores its relationship to systemic inflammation. A growing body of research has shown that systemic inflammation is a common factor behind a broad range of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disfunction, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative disease. [7]So what does this have to do with your gut? Chronic inflammation may, in many cases, stem from an overabundance of specific gut bacteria. When these harmful bacteria grow out of control, they activate inflammatory pathways in the body, leading to system-wide inflammation. Microbial imbalance can also cause inflammation by affecting the permeability of the intestinal walls, creating what’s known as a “leaky gut.” When our microbiome is healthy, good bacteria keep our intestinal walls strong, protecting the rest of the body from our digestive waste. When our bacterial balance is off, our intestinal walls become weaker, allowing metabolites from our digestive tract to leak into the bloodstream, triggering an inflammatory response in the body. [7]
04

Inflammation

Perhaps the most exciting area of microbiome research explores its relationship to systemic inflammation. A growing body of research has shown that systemic inflammation is a common factor behind a broad range of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, kidney disfunction, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative disease. [7]So what does this have to do with your gut? Chronic inflammation may, in many cases, stem from an overabundance of specific gut bacteria. When these harmful bacteria grow out of control, they activate inflammatory pathways in the body, leading to system-wide inflammation. Microbial imbalance can also cause inflammation by affecting the permeability of the intestinal walls, creating what’s known as a “leaky gut.” When our microbiome is healthy, good bacteria keep our intestinal walls strong, protecting the rest of the body from our digestive waste. When our bacterial balance is off, our intestinal walls become weaker, allowing metabolites from our digestive tract to leak into the bloodstream, triggering an inflammatory response in the body. [7]
05

How are the Gut and Skin Connected?

Scientists refer to the interaction between the gut and skin as the “gut-skin axis”. Because the skin, in particular, is sensitive to systemic inflammation, it is exceedingly responsive to changes in the gut microbiome. This is why individuals who struggle with inflammatory digestive issues often see accompanying skin side effects. One symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for example, are skin rashes or lesions. Research suggests that the connection also goes the other way: inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis, acne, eczema, atopic dermatitis and rosacea may stem from microbiome imbalances. In fact, studies of people with rosacea show that certain bacteria are more abundant in their gut microbiomes than in the general population. [8,10]In addition to its inflammation-regulating functions, the gut microbiome is also a hormone-regulating center. In fact, intestinal microbes release at least 30 hormone-like compounds. [5,8] These compounds can have a direct impact on the skin–leading scientists to look further into the connection between the microbiome and hormone-modulated skin issues like acne.
05

How are the Gut and Skin Connected?

Scientists refer to the interaction between the gut and skin as the “gut-skin axis”. Because the skin, in particular, is sensitive to systemic inflammation, it is exceedingly responsive to changes in the gut microbiome. This is why individuals who struggle with inflammatory digestive issues often see accompanying skin side effects. One symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for example, are skin rashes or lesions. Research suggests that the connection also goes the other way: inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis, acne, eczema, atopic dermatitis and rosacea may stem from microbiome imbalances. In fact, studies of people with rosacea show that certain bacteria are more abundant in their gut microbiomes than in the general population. [8,10]In addition to its inflammation-regulating functions, the gut microbiome is also a hormone-regulating center. In fact, intestinal microbes release at least 30 hormone-like compounds. [5,8] These compounds can have a direct impact on the skin–leading scientists to look further into the connection between the microbiome and hormone-modulated skin issues like acne.
06

Is Gut Health Related to Acne?

Despite the fact that acne is one of the most studied skin diseases, the scientific jury is still out when it comes to the exact link between gut health and breakouts. Research shows that there are three primary factors behind the development of breakouts: ductal obstruction, sebum oversecretion, and inflammation caused by a bacteria called propionibacterium acnes. [9] While a proven link has yet to be confirmed, acne researchers hypothesize that certain intestinal flora may increase the production of hormones that trigger sebum secretion and skin inflammation. More sebum and higher inflammation creates the ideal environment for acne-causing bacteria to proliferate, leading to breakouts. Additionally, an unhealthy gut can make it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients like chromium, folic acid, selenium, and zinc – all of which are essential in keeping the skin healthy and acne-free. [9]
06

Is Gut Health Related to Acne?

Despite the fact that acne is one of the most studied skin diseases, the scientific jury is still out when it comes to the exact link between gut health and breakouts. Research shows that there are three primary factors behind the development of breakouts: ductal obstruction, sebum oversecretion, and inflammation caused by a bacteria called propionibacterium acnes. [9] While a proven link has yet to be confirmed, acne researchers hypothesize that certain intestinal flora may increase the production of hormones that trigger sebum secretion and skin inflammation. More sebum and higher inflammation creates the ideal environment for acne-causing bacteria to proliferate, leading to breakouts. Additionally, an unhealthy gut can make it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients like chromium, folic acid, selenium, and zinc – all of which are essential in keeping the skin healthy and acne-free. [9]
07

Is Gut Health Related to Aging?

Studies show that our microbial communities change as we age. In fact, it’s actually possible to estimate a person’s age within 4 years of accuracy just by analyzing their gut and skin microbes. While the research is still emerging, these age-related microbiome shifts may be the key to understanding how strengthening the gut-skin axis can be used to reverse the aging process. [12,13]Let’s take a closer look at what we know today about the connection. INFLAMMATION When the gut is out of whack, the body initiates a systemic immune response that results in a constant state of inflammation throughout the body. Over time, this can lead to an accelerated state of aging throughout the body. Even low levels of chronic inflammation fast-track the aging process and are closely linked to a number of age-related diseases. [6,11,12]SKIN AGINGAge-related microbiome changes may affect the skin’s production of moisturizing factors, creating an accelerated rate of skin aging. Information gathered from the National Center for Biotechnology found that bacterial pathways in the gut affect the body’s production of ceramides and fatty acids – natural moisturizers that fortify the skin barrier, maintain elasticity, and prevent sagging. [11,12,1]
07

Is Gut Health Related to Aging?

Studies show that our microbial communities change as we age. In fact, it’s actually possible to estimate a person’s age within 4 years of accuracy just by analyzing their gut and skin microbes. While the research is still emerging, these age-related microbiome shifts may be the key to understanding how strengthening the gut-skin axis can be used to reverse the aging process. [12,13]Let’s take a closer look at what we know today about the connection. INFLAMMATION When the gut is out of whack, the body initiates a systemic immune response that results in a constant state of inflammation throughout the body. Over time, this can lead to an accelerated state of aging throughout the body. Even low levels of chronic inflammation fast-track the aging process and are closely linked to a number of age-related diseases. [6,11,12]SKIN AGINGAge-related microbiome changes may affect the skin’s production of moisturizing factors, creating an accelerated rate of skin aging. Information gathered from the National Center for Biotechnology found that bacterial pathways in the gut affect the body’s production of ceramides and fatty acids – natural moisturizers that fortify the skin barrier, maintain elasticity, and prevent sagging. [11,12,1]
08

How Does My Gut Get Out of Balance?

We are what we eat — at least when it comes to our intestinal microbiota. The foods we consume either promote or inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms within our gut. A diet high in processed foods and added sugars may decrease the number of healthy bacteria in the gut and lead to inflammation. The following are other factors that affect gut health. [14]
  • Not enough fiber. Fiber is prebiotic, meaning it promotes the growth of good gut bacteria.
  • Too much alcohol. Alcohol can kill good gut bacteria and feed harmful bacteria with its high sugar content.
  • Taking antibiotics. While antibiotics can be vital in certain situations, they also kill off huge numbers of gut bacteria, including the beneficial ones, & compromise your microbial balance.
  • Tobacco use. Smoking fills your body with cancer-causing substances and is a risk factor behind several digestive diseases.
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep stresses your entire body and can decrease good bacteria in your gut.
  • High stress. High levels of stress can decrease blood flow to the gut while increasing digestive sensitivity.
  • Not enough exercise. Physical activity helps regulate your blood glucose levels. When these are off, your gut health may suffer.
08

How Does My Gut Get Out of Balance?

We are what we eat — at least when it comes to our intestinal microbiota. The foods we consume either promote or inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms within our gut. A diet high in processed foods and added sugars may decrease the number of healthy bacteria in the gut and lead to inflammation. The following are other factors that affect gut health. [14]
  • Not enough fiber. Fiber is prebiotic, meaning it promotes the growth of good gut bacteria.
  • Too much alcohol. Alcohol can kill good gut bacteria and feed harmful bacteria with its high sugar content.
  • Taking antibiotics. While antibiotics can be vital in certain situations, they also kill off huge numbers of gut bacteria, including the beneficial ones, & compromise your microbial balance.
  • Tobacco use. Smoking fills your body with cancer-causing substances and is a risk factor behind several digestive diseases.
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep stresses your entire body and can decrease good bacteria in your gut.
  • High stress. High levels of stress can decrease blood flow to the gut while increasing digestive sensitivity.
  • Not enough exercise. Physical activity helps regulate your blood glucose levels. When these are off, your gut health may suffer.
10

How to Maintain a Healthy Gut Microbiome

Maintaining a healthy gut means creating an environment favorable to good microbes and unfavorable to the bad microorganisms within the digestive tract. Here are a few easy ways to foster a positive gut environment:
  • Sleep Plenty: To help your body repair itself and keep stress levels low.
  • Manage Stress: To reduce inflammation throughout the body.
  • Stay Hydrated: To protect the mucosal gut lining and keep bowel movements regular.
  • Eat Slowly: To thoroughly break down your food & support healthy digestion
  • Eat for Microbiome Balance: A high-fiber, low-sugar diet with minimally processed foods has been shown to support gut health 8,14 Try to also eat plenty of:
    • Fermented foods such as kimchi, yogurt, sauerkraut and miso.
    • Longevity-promoting foods like bone broth, salmon, and lean meats.
    • High-fiber foods like bananas, peas, legumes, and oats.
  • Prebiotic & probiotic supplements: Probiotics seed your gut with good bacteria, while prebiotics feed the beneficial bacteria that aid in maintaining a healthy digestive system.
10

How to Maintain a Healthy Gut Microbiome

Maintaining a healthy gut means creating an environment favorable to good microbes and unfavorable to the bad microorganisms within the digestive tract. Here are a few easy ways to foster a positive gut environment:
  • Sleep Plenty: To help your body repair itself and keep stress levels low.
  • Manage Stress: To reduce inflammation throughout the body.
  • Stay Hydrated: To protect the mucosal gut lining and keep bowel movements regular.
  • Eat Slowly: To thoroughly break down your food & support healthy digestion
  • Eat for Microbiome Balance: A high-fiber, low-sugar diet with minimally processed foods has been shown to support gut health 8,14 Try to also eat plenty of:
    • Fermented foods such as kimchi, yogurt, sauerkraut and miso.
    • Longevity-promoting foods like bone broth, salmon, and lean meats.
    • High-fiber foods like bananas, peas, legumes, and oats.
  • Prebiotic & probiotic supplements: Probiotics seed your gut with good bacteria, while prebiotics feed the beneficial bacteria that aid in maintaining a healthy digestive system.
11

How Do I know if My Gut Health is Off?

Because every person’s microbial community is unique to them, there’s no single definition of a normal microbiome. However, there are certain telltale signs that your microbial balance is off. You can tell your gut microbiome is out of balance if you experience the following symptoms: [3,4]
  • Stomach disturbances like excess gas, constipation, diarrhea, or bloating.
  • Sudden and unintentional weight changes.
  • Skin changes or irritation.
  • Excessive or constant fatigue
  • Sleep disturbances like insomnia
  • Food intolerances
11

How Do I know if My Gut Health is Off?

Because every person’s microbial community is unique to them, there’s no single definition of a normal microbiome. However, there are certain telltale signs that your microbial balance is off. You can tell your gut microbiome is out of balance if you experience the following symptoms: [3,4]
  • Stomach disturbances like excess gas, constipation, diarrhea, or bloating.
  • Sudden and unintentional weight changes.
  • Skin changes or irritation.
  • Excessive or constant fatigue
  • Sleep disturbances like insomnia
  • Food intolerances
12

Can I Tell My Gut-Skim Axis is Unhealthy by Looking at My Skin?

Not all skin issues start in the gut; however, if your skin suddenly appears inflamed and feels itchy, you may want to track your diet and digestion patterns for a link and look into eating more of the best foods for skin repair.You may also want to look into a probiotic supplement. One study showed that people who consumed lactobacillus paracasei supplements for 2 months had decreased skin sensitivity and enhanced skin barrier integrity. [15]
12

Can I Tell My Gut-Skim Axis is Unhealthy by Looking at My Skin?

Not all skin issues start in the gut; however, if your skin suddenly appears inflamed and feels itchy, you may want to track your diet and digestion patterns for a link and look into eating more of the best foods for skin repair.You may also want to look into a probiotic supplement. One study showed that people who consumed lactobacillus paracasei supplements for 2 months had decreased skin sensitivity and enhanced skin barrier integrity. [15]
Key Takeaways:
  • Scientists believe gut health and skin health are highly connected.
  • Poor gut health can create inflammation throughout the entire body, especially in the skin.
  • Early research suggests poor gut health may be a factor behind acne and skin aging.
  • You can improve your gut health through diet and lifestyle changes.
  • Because an unbalanced gut microbiome may accelerate aging, take steps to maintain a healthy digestive microbiota.
Key Takeaways:
  • Scientists believe gut health and skin health are highly connected.
  • Poor gut health can create inflammation throughout the entire body, especially in the skin.
  • Early research suggests poor gut health may be a factor behind acne and skin aging.
  • You can improve your gut health through diet and lifestyle changes.
  • Because an unbalanced gut microbiome may accelerate aging, take steps to maintain a healthy digestive microbiota.
References
  1. De Pessemier, Britta et al. “Gut-Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions.” Microorganisms vol. 9,2 353. 11 Feb. 2021, doi:10.3390/microorganisms9020353
  2. "The Microbiome." HSPH Harvard. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/microbiome/
  3. "What is Homeostasis?" Scientific American. 3 January, 2000. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-homeostasis/
  4. Frame, Leigh A et al. “Current explorations of nutrition and the gut microbiome: a comprehensive evaluation of the review literature.” Nutrition reviews vol. 78,10 (2020): 798-812. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuz106
  5. La Flamme, Anne Camille, and Simon Milling. “Immunological partners: the gut microbiome in homeostasis and disease.” Immunology vol. 161,1 (2020): 1-3. doi:10.1111/imm.13247
  6. "Babies' gut bacteria affected by delivery method." Science Daily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190918131447.htm
  7. Al Bander, Zahraa et al. “The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 17,20 7618. 19 Oct. 2020, doi:10.3390/ijerph17207618
  8. Salem, Iman et al. “The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 9 1459. 10 Jul. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01459
  9. Lee, Young Bok et al. “Potential Role of the Microbiome in Acne: A Comprehensive Review.” Journal of clinical medicine vol. 8,7 987. 7 Jul. 2019, doi:10.3390/jcm8070987
  10. Fields, Deborah. "Gastrointestinal Disease and Skin Problems." News Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Gastrointestinal-Disease-and-Skin-Problems.aspx
  11. Stocum, Linda. "Gut Bacteria Linked to Inflammatory Skin Disease." Dermatology Times. 11 May, 2021. https://www.dermatologytimes.com/view/gut-bacteria-linked-to-inflammatory-skin-disease
  12. Uildriks, Lori. "Harnessing the skin’s microbiome could help combat skin aging." Medical News Today.11 November, 2021. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/harnessing-the-skins-microbiome-could-help-combat-skin-aging
  13. Huang, Shi et al. “Human Skin, Oral, and Gut Microbiomes Predict Chronological Age.” mSystems vol. 5,1 e00630-19. 11 Feb. 2020, doi:10.1128/mSystems.00630-19
  14. Begum, Jabeen. "What Are the Symptoms of an Unhealthy Gut?" Medicine Net. 12 July, 2021. https://www.medicinenet.com/what_are_the_symptoms_of_an_unhealthy_gut/article.htm
  15. Traub, Michael. "Probiotic Treatment of Sensitive Skin." Natural Medicine Journal. https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2014-07/probiotic-treatment-sensitive-skin
References
  1. De Pessemier, Britta et al. “Gut-Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions.” Microorganisms vol. 9,2 353. 11 Feb. 2021, doi:10.3390/microorganisms9020353
  2. "The Microbiome." HSPH Harvard. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/microbiome/
  3. "What is Homeostasis?" Scientific American. 3 January, 2000. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-homeostasis/
  4. Frame, Leigh A et al. “Current explorations of nutrition and the gut microbiome: a comprehensive evaluation of the review literature.” Nutrition reviews vol. 78,10 (2020): 798-812. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuz106
  5. La Flamme, Anne Camille, and Simon Milling. “Immunological partners: the gut microbiome in homeostasis and disease.” Immunology vol. 161,1 (2020): 1-3. doi:10.1111/imm.13247
  6. "Babies' gut bacteria affected by delivery method." Science Daily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190918131447.htm
  7. Al Bander, Zahraa et al. “The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 17,20 7618. 19 Oct. 2020, doi:10.3390/ijerph17207618
  8. Salem, Iman et al. “The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 9 1459. 10 Jul. 2018, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01459
  9. Lee, Young Bok et al. “Potential Role of the Microbiome in Acne: A Comprehensive Review.” Journal of clinical medicine vol. 8,7 987. 7 Jul. 2019, doi:10.3390/jcm8070987
  10. Fields, Deborah. "Gastrointestinal Disease and Skin Problems." News Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Gastrointestinal-Disease-and-Skin-Problems.aspx
  11. Stocum, Linda. "Gut Bacteria Linked to Inflammatory Skin Disease." Dermatology Times. 11 May, 2021. https://www.dermatologytimes.com/view/gut-bacteria-linked-to-inflammatory-skin-disease
  12. Uildriks, Lori. "Harnessing the skin’s microbiome could help combat skin aging." Medical News Today.11 November, 2021. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/harnessing-the-skins-microbiome-could-help-combat-skin-aging
  13. Huang, Shi et al. “Human Skin, Oral, and Gut Microbiomes Predict Chronological Age.” mSystems vol. 5,1 e00630-19. 11 Feb. 2020, doi:10.1128/mSystems.00630-19
  14. Begum, Jabeen. "What Are the Symptoms of an Unhealthy Gut?" Medicine Net. 12 July, 2021. https://www.medicinenet.com/what_are_the_symptoms_of_an_unhealthy_gut/article.htm
  15. Traub, Michael. "Probiotic Treatment of Sensitive Skin." Natural Medicine Journal. https://www.naturalmedicinejournal.com/journal/2014-07/probiotic-treatment-sensitive-skin

Reviewed by Alessandra Zonari, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) and Co-Founder of OneSkin

Alessandra earned her Master’s degree in stem cell biology, and her PhD in skin regeneration and tissue engineering at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil in collaboration with the 3B’s Research Group in Portugal. Alessandra did a second post-doctoral at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. She is a co-inventor of three patents and has published 20 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals.

Reviewed by Alessandra Zonari, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) and Co-Founder of OneSkin

Alessandra earned her Master’s degree in stem cell biology, and her PhD in skin regeneration and tissue engineering at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil in collaboration with the 3B’s Research Group in Portugal. Alessandra did a second post-doctoral at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. She is a co-inventor of three patents and has published 20 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals.

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